Ovarian cysts – What are they ?
I have been told I have an ovarian cyst, what is it?
- Ovarian cysts – a fluid-filled sac
- Very common –the majority are asymptomatic
- Usually detected on routine USG
- 1 in 10 requires intervention 10
- No definitive factors
- Hormonal imbalance
- Genetic factors - BRCA gene
- Pelvic / abdominal pain
- Early satiety
- Urinary symptoms
- Menstrual disturbances.
What tests are done?
- CT /MRI scan if doubtful
- Blood tests – CA 125, HCG, AFP, LDH
- FNAC / biopsy is not to be done FNAC
Types of ovarian cyst
Benign ovarian tumor
- Dermoid cyst
- Chocolate cyst/ endometriotic
- Epithelial – most common
- Germ cell tumor
- Sex cord-stromal tumor
- Not all ovarian cysts are cancerous, the majority are benign.
- Diagnosis depends on scanning report – complex cysts, solid component.
- Blood tests – CA 125, HCG, AFP, LDH.
Do all ovarian cysts require surgery?
- Cysts that are benign on imaging and blood tests.
- Small cysts - close monitoring
- if the size is increasing
- Causing symptoms due to torsion/infection/hemorrhage
- Large cysts >6cm
- Simple cysts with no symptoms - further imaging and assessment
- Surgery – if any doubts about cancer/symptoms/complex cyst
What is the surgery for a benign ovarian cyst?
- Surgical removal of the cyst.
- Surgery - open/keyhole
- Keyhole surgery is to be avoided if there is any doubt of cancer in the cyst.
Do all ovarian cysts become cancer?
- The cyst is either cancerous or benign from the beginning.
- The chance of a benign cyst going to become cancer is very minimal.
- Surgery is not to be done just because a cyst is present.
In a nutshell
- The majority of ovarian cysts are benign and require no intervention.
- The Nature of cysts is determined by scans and blood tests.
- When indicated surgery is the only treatment option.