Uterine Cancer

  • Happens in post-menopausal age
  • Young women
  • Good prognosis

Risk Factors


  • Estrogen
  • Progesterone
  • Obesity
    • 2x-50lb overweight - 3x incidence
    • >50lb weight – 10x incidence
  • Nulliparity  - incidence increased 2x
  • Late Menopause – incidence increased 2.5x
  • Hypertension and Hypothyroidism are associated.



  • Bleeding
    • 15% of the patients with postmenopausal bleeding will have endometrial cancer.
    • Intermenstrual bleeding/spotting.
  • Other signs & symptoms
    • Vaginal Discharge (80-90%)
    • Pelvic Pain, Pressure.

What to do if someone has symptoms


  • Please do not panic, majority of cases it's not cancer.
  • Consult your doctor for routine checkups.



  • Ultrasound of the abdomen
  • Endometrial Biopsy – if anything suspicious.
  • Hysteroscopy guided biopsy – dilation and curettage.
  • CT Scan/ MRI as necessary.

If Diagnosed with uterine cancer, then


  • Meet your one surgeon to plan next.
  • Imaging to stage the disease.
  • Surgery is the mainstay of treatment followed by adjuvant therapy based on staging.
  • Surgery in cancer is different from what surgery is done in benign conditions.
  • Surgery includes:- 
    • Removal of the uterus with ovaries.
    • Removal of draining lymph nodes.
    • Omental Biopsy
    • Visual evaluation and if suspicious – excision of peritoneal lesions.
    • In Stage 2 – a radical hysterectomy has to be done.
  • Incomplete surgery increases the chances of recurrence.
  • Patients with incomplete surgical staging may require
    • Revision surgery
    • Addition of chemotherapy/radiation.

What After surgery


  • Adjuvant treatment based on the pathology report.
  • Regular Follow-up:-
    • First 2 years – Every month.
    • Every 6 months until 5 years.

A patient with uterine cancer wants to have a child


  • Only in selected patients with early disease.
  • Grade 1 disease limited to endometrium on MRI
  • Require proper counseling and frequent follow-up.
  • In consultation with the oncology team



  • Uterine cancer is curable if detected early.
  • Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and differs from those done for non-cancer conditions.
  • Complete treatment and regular follow-up have high chances of cure.